Fundamental Electronics (Fall 2011)

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Overview

The purpose of this course is to teach students basic laboratory electronics. Students completing the course will be well-versed in the most important measurement techniques used in modern experimental physics laboratories. The course focuses on practical applications of electronics and will not explore electrodynamics or the theory of electromagnetism.

We will begin with the very basics of DC circuits and work our way up to more complicated analog circuits. We will very briefly introduce the inner workings of digital cicuits, before moving to more modern practical techniques such as LabVIEW programming for the purpose of automating measurements and collecting data, the basics of Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and low-noise measurement techniques.


Format and Requirements

The course consists of one 2-hour lecture per week and one 1-hour practical session per week. Practical sessions will vary from week to week. Depending on the topic the sessions will involve the actual building of electronic circuits, the programming of a measurement script, or the resolution of circuit design problems. Satisfactory completion of all of the assignments is required in order to pass the course. The course will be conducted in English. The grading is pass/fail.

This course will be aimed at 3rd-year bachelor and master students in physics and nanoscience. Physics II is suggested as a prerequisite, though not required.

Large portions of the course will be based on the The Art of Electronics, P. Horowitz and W. Hill (Cambridge, 1997) and Student Manual for the Art of Electronics, T. C. Hayes and P. Horowitz (Cambridge, 1996). While The Art of Electronics (AE) is an excellent reference, we will more closely follow its practical companion Student Manual for the Art of Electronics (SMAE), which you are required to have and encouraged to buy. Copies of the readings for more modern topics will be distributed in class.


Schedule


Lectures: Tuesdays, 10.00-12.00, Neuer Hörsaal 1
Lab Sessions: Wednesdays, 10:00-11:00 and 13.00-14.00, Seminarzimmer 2.04
Exercise Sessions: Wednesdays, 13:00-14:00, Neuer Hörsaal 1
Date Lecture Content
20.09.2011 Preliminary Logistics and Introduction
Course outline and expectations; What are laboratory electronics? Why study laboratory electronics? We then begin by studying simple DC circuits.

Practical Session: none.

Reading: SMAE: p. 1-24; AE: 1.1-1.11, Appendix A, C.

Downloads: Lecture notes, Lecture slides.
27.09.2011 AC Circuits and Diodes
Capacitors, RC circuits, diode circuits, radio, and LC ringing.

Practical Session: Do Lab 1: DC Circuits (SMAE).

Reading: SMAE: p. 24-81; AE: 1.12-1.34 Appendix B, E.

Downloads: Lecture notes, Lecture slides.
04.10.2011 Transistors
A first model for a transistor, emitter followers, corrections to the first model, common-emitter amplifiers, and differential amplifiers.

Practical Session: Do Lab 2: Capacitors (SMAE).

Reading: SMAE: p. 82-141; AE: chp. 2.

Downloads: Lecture notes.
11.10.2011 FETs and OpAmps
Field effect transistors, idealized operational amplifiers, iverting aplifiers, summing amplifiers, integrators, and differentiators, .

Practical Session: Do Lab 6: Transistors III (SMAE).

Reading: SMAE:p. 142-183; AE: 3.01-3.10, 4.01-4.09.

Downloads: Lecture notes.
18.10.2011 More OpAmps and Feedback
Deviations from the ideal, positive and negative feedback, active filters, and inner workings of an OpAmp.

Practical Session: Do Problem Set 1: Passive Devices.

Reading: SMAE: p. 184-243; AE: 4.10-4.22.

Downloads: Lecture notes, Problem Set 1.
25.10.2011 More OpAmps and Feedback (cont.)
Deviations from the ideal, positive and negative feedback, active filters, and inner workings of an OpAmp.

Practical Session: Do Problem Set 2: Bipolar Transistors.

Reading: SMAE: p. 184-243; AE: 4.10-4.22.

Downloads: Lecture notes, Problem Set 2.
01.11.2011 Noise and Precision Circuit Design
Circuit errors, Johnson noise, shot noise, 1/f noise, interference, noise temperature, ENBW.

Practical Session: Do Lab 8: Op amps I (SMAE).

Reading: AE: chp. 7.

Downloads: Lecture notes.
08.11.2011 Review of Analog Electronics
Review of the material presented so far.

Practical Session: Free lab time.

Reading:

Downloads: Lecture notes.
15.11.2011 Basic Concepts of Digital Electronics I
Digital gates, cobinational logic, multiplexers, flip-flops, and counters.

Practical Session: Do Problem Set 3: JFETs and Differential Amplifiers.

Reading: SMAE: p. 281-405.

Downloads: Lecture notes, Lecture slides, Problem Set 3.
22.11.2011 Basic Concepts of Digital Electronics II
Memory, buses, state machines.

Practical Session: Do Problem Set 4: Operational Amplifiers.

Reading: SMAE: p. 406-430; AE: chp. 9.

Downloads: Lecture notes, Lecture slides, Problem Set 4.
29.11.2011 Digital Meets Analog
Analog to digital, digital to analog, and phase-locked loops.

Practical Session: Do Problem Set 5: Op. Amp.s and Positive Feedback.

Reading:

Downloads: Lecture notes, Problem Set 5.
06.12.2011 High Frequencies and Transmission Lines
High Frequencies, electromagnetic spectrum, transmission lines, impedance matching, reflections.

Practical Session: Do Lab 10: Op amps III (SMAE).

Reading: AE: chp. 13.

Downloads: Lecture notes.
13.12.2011 Measurements Techniques, Noise, Automation, and FPGAs
Measurement transducers, precision standards and measurements, bandwidth-narrowing techniques, spectrum analysis, techniques for minimizing noise, data aquisition, instrument control, automation, programming measurements, introduction to and applications of to field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs).

Practical Session: Free lab time.

Reading: AE: chp. 15.

Downloads: Lecture notes, Lecture slides.
20.12.2011 Electronics Applied to Real Experiments: Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy
We will work in detail through the electronics behind state-of-the-art mangetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) experiments.

Practical Session: Free lab time.

Reading:

Downloads: Lecture notes, Lecture slides.



References